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Transparency and Accountability in Public Health: A Critical Review of Pakistan’s Healthcare System

By 25/09/2023 0 Comments

A robust healthcare system is a fundamental pillar of a nation’s well-being, and transparency and accountability are key elements for its success. In Pakistan, a country of over 220 million people, the healthcare sector faces significant challenges. This blog critically examines the state of transparency and accountability within Pakistan’s healthcare system, shedding light on the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement.

The Current Landscape

Pakistan’s healthcare system, as it stands today, reflects a complex interplay of challenges and opportunities. With a population exceeding 220 million people, the demands on the healthcare infrastructure are immense. The healthcare sector is a blend of public and private entities, but it grapples with profound transparency and accountability issues. One of the most significant concerns is the equitable allocation and utilization of healthcare budgets, as the lack of transparency in the budgetary process often results in misallocation of resources and inefficiencies. A closer examination of Pakistan’s healthcare budget reveals disparities between allocations and actual spending, signifying a critical need for enhanced financial transparency and rigorous tracking of expenditures. Supply chain management is another area fraught with challenges, as corruption within the procurement and distribution of medical supplies and pharmaceuticals can lead to inflated costs, counterfeit medications, and shortages of vital drugs, undermining the quality of care and patient outcomes. Furthermore, the healthcare system faces issues in data collection, reporting, and dissemination, with incomplete and inconsistent health data hindering the government’s ability to make evidence-based decisions and respond effectively to health crises. While the healthcare sector is vital to the well-being of the nation, addressing these transparency and accountability issues is essential to ensure it functions optimally and equitably for all Pakistanis.

Resource Allocation and Budget Transparency

One of the primary concerns is the allocation and utilization of healthcare budgets. Lack of transparency in budgetary processes can lead to inefficiencies and mismanagement of funds. A critical review of Pakistan’s healthcare budget reveals discrepancies between allocations and actual spending, highlighting the need for greater transparency in financial planning and expenditure tracking.

Supply Chain Management

Transparency issues also extend to the procurement and distribution of medical supplies and pharmaceuticals. Corruption within the supply chain can lead to inflated costs, counterfeit drugs, and shortages of essential medicines, adversely affecting the quality of care and patient outcomes.

Public Health Data and Reporting

Accurate and timely data is essential for evidence-based decision-making in healthcare. However, Pakistan faces challenges in data collection, reporting, and dissemination. Incomplete and inconsistent health data hinder the government’s ability to respond effectively to health crises, such as disease outbreaks.

Citizen Engagement and Accountability

Citizen engagement is a cornerstone of accountability in healthcare. Unfortunately, many Pakistanis face barriers in accessing healthcare services and have limited avenues for voicing their concerns. A lack of transparency can erode public trust in the healthcare system, leading to reduced utilization of services and, ultimately, negative health outcomes.

Initiatives and Reforms

Despite these challenges, Pakistan has made efforts to improve transparency and accountability in healthcare. Initiatives like the Prime Minister’s Health Program and the Sehat Sahulat Program aim to expand healthcare access and enhance financial transparency. The introduction of technology, such as telemedicine and digital health records, holds promise for improving data management and service delivery.

The Role of Civil Society and Media

Civil society organizations and the media have played a vital role in advocating for transparency and accountability in Pakistan’s healthcare system. Investigative journalism and public awareness campaigns have exposed corruption and prompted action from authorities.

Legal Framework and Regulatory Reforms

Strengthening the legal framework and regulatory environment is crucial. Pakistan needs robust anti-corruption measures, whistleblower protection, and mechanisms for citizens to report healthcare-related grievances without fear of reprisal.

International Best Practices

To foster transparency and accountability, Pakistan can draw inspiration from international best practices. Learning from the experiences of countries with successful healthcare systems can provide valuable insights into reforming its own.


Transparency and accountability in Pakistan’s healthcare system are essential for improving the health and well-being of its citizens. Addressing the challenges outlined in this critical review is paramount. By enhancing budget transparency, reforming supply chain management, improving data collection and reporting, and fostering citizen engagement, Pakistan can move closer to achieving a healthcare system that is equitable, efficient, and responsive to the needs of its people. Ultimately, the path to a healthier Pakistan lies in a healthcare system that is not only accessible but also transparent and accountable to its citizens.

This article is written by Radma Nouman. Radma is a research analyst at the Iqbal Institute of Policy Studies (IIPS).

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